"Pikes Peak or Bust!" gold rush. Placer gold is discovered along the east side of the Front Range and in the Arkansas Valley. Although there is some prospecting, no discovery is made at Cripple Creek.
H. T. Wood of the Hayden Survey reports finding gold near Mt. Pisgah. There is a small rush, but no ore is discovered.
Reported discovery of rich placer deposits near Mt. Pisgah proves to be a salting scam. Despite another rush to the area, the Cripple Creek Deposits remain undiscovered.
Since 1880 "Cowboy" Bob Womack, a local ranch hand with a fondness for booze, has been prospecting the area. He finds several veins in Poverty Gulch and takes pieces of high grade to Colorado Springs, but the sober townsfolk don't take him seriously.
Two prospectors from Colorado Springs find Cowboy Bob at work in Poverty Gulch. They send 1,100 pounds of surface ore to Pueblo and it assays at $200 gold per ton. At last Cripple Creek is discovered, and the great rush is on!
At dawn on July 4, Winfield Scott Stratton, a carpenter and self-taught mineralogist, follows a hunch and locates the Independence and Washington claims in a briar patch on Battle Mountain. Stratton's original samples ran 19 ounces per ton, or $380.00 per ton.
The hills are swarming with prospectors. Bob Womack has sold his bonanza (the site of the Gold King mine) for $300.
The town of Cripple Creek is incorporated in February.
By October at least 17 mines are shipping ore and two railroads are being built to the district. The Portland mine, which will become the district's largest producer, is located as a small claim by three prospectors.
The country is in economic depression. The Mint in India ceased buying silver, and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act was repealed by Congress. Silver mines in Colorado are devastated. Cripple Creek's gold becomes the most viable mining district in the state.
Brothers Albert E. and Leslie Carlton start a freighting business between the district and the incomplete Midland Terminal railway after A. E. secures the concession to sell coal in the district for the Colorado Fuel & Iron Corporation.
The Western Federation of Miners organizes miners in opposition to an attempt by mine owners to reduce the established wage of $3.00 for an eight-hour day. A general strike is called on February 1. The mine owners hire scabs, and send 1,200 "deputy sheriffs" into the district. The deputies are prevented from marching to the town of Altman by 700 armed strikers in the "Battle of Bull Hill." Governor Waite sends the state militia to the district to protect life and property, and appoints a Committee on Arbitration to settle the strike. The strike ends in June, with the $3.00 wage for an eight-hour day still in effect.
Whitman Cross and R. A. F. Penrose, Jr. investigate the geology and mines of the district for the U. S. Geological Survey.
On July 1 the narrow gauge Florence & Cripple Creek Railroad is completed. On the first return trip to Florence, two coaches overturn at Anaconda, killing a passenger. Following this inauspicious start, the F. & C.C. becomes one of the most profitable railroads in Colorado, hauling Cripple Creek ores to mills in Florence.
In December the standard gauge Midland Terminal Railway is completed from Divide to the district, providing direct access to mills in Colorado Springs. Despite labor troubles, production for the year exceeds 1000,000 ounces of gold, and Cripple Creek becomes Colorado's most productive gold camp.
The Portland Mine reaches a depth of 600 feet, and the Independence mine a depth of 470 feet. Stratton, now a rich man, begins to purchase other mining properties in the district. He has a theory that the major vein systems converge in the vicinity of Globe and Gold Hills, and that under these hills will be found the richest lodes in the district.
On April 25 fire destroys eight blocks in Cripple Creek. The Blaze begins in the Central Dance Hall when a stove is knocked over in a fight between a dance hall girl and her boyfriend. This is a mere curtain raiser for the conflagration which follows on April 29. The second fire begins in the kitchen of the Portland Hotel, and consumes most of the town, even though buildings are dynamited to act as fire breaks. Cripple Creek becomes a tent city until brick and lumber can be brought in for rebuilding.
His freight business and coal concession have made A. E. Carlton rich. He buys the First National Bank of Cripple Creek, and begins to purchase mining property.
Teller County is created from part of El Paso and Fremont Counties. Cripple Creek becomes the new county seat.
W. S. Stratton, his health failing, sells the Independence mine to Stratton's Independence Ltd. Of London for $10,000,000. At the this time it is the biggest mining deal in U.S history.
On August 21 a fire starts in Jenny Thompson's 999 Dance Hall, and most of Victor is destroyed. Like Cripple Creek, Victor rises rapidly from the ashes. Most of the business and commercial buildings are rebuilt with brick rather than lumber.
As the new century begins, the Cripple Creek district boasts a population of about 50,000, service by two railroads to the "outside,' an electric interurban railway system connecting the communities in the camp, eleven dairies, a tallow vat, a limekiln, a greenhouse, numerous bars and pleasure places, and over 300 mines.
Vice-Presidential candidate Theodore Roosevelt, campaigning for William McKinley, the gold standard, and a fixed gold price of $20.67 per ounce, visits the district. In Victor, T. R.'s train is met by a hostile crowd of miners, who force the hero of San Juan Hill to abandon his speech and make a strategic withdrawal. He continues on to Cripple Creek where the audience cheers him enthusiastically.
District production for the year reaches 878,067 troy ounces of gold, a record never exceeded by the camp.
A third railroad, the Colorado Springs & Cripple Creek District Railway (or, The Short Line), is completed. It is built by the mine owners to undercut the high freight rates charged by the other two railroads. In April Vice-President Theodore Roosevelt rides the new CS&CCD and pronounces it to be, "the trip that bankrupts the English language." Cheering crowds meet T. R.'s train in Victor, where a year before irate miners had forced him to flee.
W. S. Stratton, the "Midas of the Rockies," dies on September 14 at the age of 54. Civic groups in Colorado Springs and Cripple Creek are outraged when his will leaves them nothing. After bequests to a few friends and relatives, Stratton leaves the bulk of his estate to found an institution for orphans and the aged poor in Colorado Springs.
In February the Western Federation of Miners strikes for higher wages at the Standard Mill near Colorado Springs. No settlement is reached and the walkout spreads to other mills. On August 10 the Federation calls its members out of all the Cripple Creek mines shipping ore to the struck mills. The already tense situation deteriorates when Governor Peabody, responding to urging by the mine owners, orders the militia into the district. Adjutant General Sherman M. Bell proceeds to suspend civil law, and erects a "bull pen," or stockade, for the imprisonment of strikers and sympathizers without trial. Bell's intemperate proclamations and dictatorial orders shift much public and press support to the cause of the miners. A series of bombings and other outrages for which labor and the owners blame each other leads to an official declaration of martial law in December.
Waldemar Lindgren and Frederick L. Ransom, assisted by Louis C. Gratton, undertake a re-survey of the geology and mines for the U. S. Geological Survey, which is published as Professional Paper No. 54.
The strike continues as owners operate the mines with non-union labor. The district erupts in violence. Harry Orchard, acting with at least the implied support of radical union leaders in Denver, plants a bomb on the 600 level of the Vindicator mine, killing a mine superintendent and foreman. On June 6 he detonates another bomb which kills 15 non-union miners at the Independence depot. That afternoon unknown persons fire on a mass meeting in Victor, killing two and wounding three. The militia breaks up the mob, then fires on the union hall, wounding four. After the Federation men surrender, mobs sack union halls in the district. Hundreds of union men are locked into box cars and deported to the plains of Kansas and New Mexico. Orchard later murders former Idaho Governor Frank Steunenberg with a bomb at his Caldwell, Idaho home. Upon arrest for the Idaho bombing, Orchard implicates the WFM leadership. William D. Haywood, Charles H. Moyer, and George Pettibone are kidnapped in Denver, then taken for trial in Idaho along with Orchard. Defense attorney Clarence Darrow obtains acquittals on the murder charges for the three union leaders, but Orchard goes to prison for life. Although bitterness will continue for years to come, a gradual peace comes to the troubled district.
The Golden Cycle cyanide mill opens at Colorado Springs in February, is destroyed by fire in August, and is rebuilt by December. The new mill treats most of the Cripple Creek district ore.
A. E. Carlton takes over driving the Roosevelt drainage tunnel after little headway is made during the first year of work.
"Cowboy" Bob Womack dies penniless in Colorado Springs on August 10.
Driving of the Roosevelt drainage tunnel (portal altitude 8,020 feet) allows the Portland mine to open a 1,500 foot level, and the Independence mine a 1,000 foot level.
Five miles of Florence & Cripple Creek Railroad track are washed out by a July flood. The ensuing decision to abandon the F. & C.C. effectively forces closure of the mills at Florence.
Cripple Creek, which seldom gets much snow, receives a record fall in December. Trains are snowbound and the towns are isolated until a borrowed Colorado Midland rotary plow opens the railroads from Colorado Springs.
The district's most elaborate washing plant is installed at the Vindicator mine.
The "Cresson Vug," or "Big Stope," a calavarite-lined vug, is discovered in the Cresson Mine 1200 level. Ore containing up to 4,000 troy ounces of gold per ton is mined under armed guard. Sixty thousand ounces are produced in a few weeks.
Writer Julian Street describes his visit to Cripple Creek's red light district on Myers Avenue in Colliers magazine. The Cripple Creek city council demands an apology for defaming the community in the national media. When no apology is forthcoming the council retaliates by changing the name of Myers Avenue to Julian Street.
A. E. Carlton acquires the Golden Cycle mine and mill, and consolidates his holdings to become the principal magnate of the district. Roosevelt drainage tunnel completed for a total length of 24,255 feet. The tunnel results in a general lowering of the water level in the mines by 700 feet.
The old F. & C.C. railroad grade is opened to automobile traffic as the Phantom Canyon Highway.
The Colorado Springs & Cripple Creek District Railway suspends service. The roadbed becomes a toll road, and is now the Gold Camp Road.
A. E. Carlton dies on September 9.
Lowest annual district production (109,346) troy ounces gold) since 1894.
Price of gold increased from $20.70 to $35.00 per troy ounce. Price increase and depression stimulate renewed interest in the district.
Carlton deep level drainage tunnel (portal altitude 6,893 feet) completed to drain camp about 1,000 feet below the level of the Roosevelt drainage tunnel. Crews set a record driving 611 miles of tunnel in 2 years and 5 days.
Government war-time restrictions (L-208) force many mines to close.
The Golden Cycle Mill in Colorado Springs closes, and as a consequence the Midland Terminal Railway is abandoned due to a lack of traffic.
The Carlton Mill, near Elkton, opens to treat district ores locally.
The Carlton Mill closes, having processed 437,037 troy ounces of gold. Mining in the district virtually stops. Tourism becomes the district's main industry.
Gold cap of $35.00 per ounce is lifted, permitting gold to fluctuate on the market like any other metal.
Golden Cycle starts rehab of Ajax mine. Contractor sinks shaft to 3350 feet below collar.
Golden Cycle and Texasgulf, Inc. form Joint Venture for exploration of district.
Gold price hits a record high of $850 an ounce.
Production of first dore at Silver State Mining's vat leach operation on Globe Hill. Decline driven into Cresson pipe from surface using rubber tired equipment. First use of rubber tired equipment in the district.
Hecla joins Joint Venture as operator.
Ajax shuts down. Nerco Minerals purchases 60% of Silver State Mining Co.
Nerco Minerals purchases Texasgulf interests and forms Pikes Peak Mining Company. Some heap leaching.
Independence Mining Co. purchases stock of Pikes Peak Mining Co. and expands leaching and surface mining operations as operator of Joint Venture.
I, Linda, and my husband, visits this area on our honeymoon for the first time. An instant success, even for the few hours we spent there!
Anglo-gold acquires Independence Mining Co. and expands mining and leaching.
Our second visit to this area, it's now March and I'm now totally in love with this place.
June, finely another visit. It's been too long, much have changed, but it was a good trip.
December, got a chance to do a single day trip while up in Denver on a visit, loved it!